Cancer Diagnostics Test

Posted By: admin | Posted on: 14 November, 2016 15:16 pm

Cancer Detection tests- biopsy, blood and urine test, pathology and genetic tests
Biopsy: Cancer Detection Test

(Image Credits – shutterstock.com)

 

Detecting Cancer

Detecting cancer screening tests are usually not meant for the diagnosis of cancer. They give an indication for further tests in order to confirm the existence of cancer. The confirmation tests are actually what are referred to as Cancer Diagnostics Tests, which normally includes using body fluids such as blood and urine, and also biopsies obtained from the suspected cancer sites, for pathological and genetic tests. Endoscopy (introduction of instruments into the cavities of the body and obtain pictures for observation) and more sensitive imaging procedures for further evaluation. The summary of the different diagnostic tests is displayed in the flow chart below:

Cancer Causes-genetic, environmental and lifestyle habits
Cancer Causes

 

Doctors use advanced devices, imaging technologies, and various lab tests to evaluate the type, size and stage of cancer to confirm the diagnosis of the affected patient. Subsequently, they plan strategies for personalized first-line treatment, followed by additional follow-up therapies to lower the risk of recurrence (a chance of cancer returning).  If your cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the goal is to treat you to be completely cancer-free.

The Table below highlights on symptoms exhibited by some commonly known cancers and various tests performed for their evaluation:

What symptoms are linked to the diagnosis of specific cancers?   

Symptoms Commonly Presented by Different Types of Cancer and Evaluation Techniques

Type of Cancer

Commonly shown Symptoms

Evaluation Tests

Brain

A severe headache, impaired movement, blurred vision, speech problems, seizures. CT scan, MRI, PET, biopsy testing.

Esophagus (gut)

Swallowing difficulties. Esophagoscopy, biopsy testing, fluorescent spectroscopy cytology test.

Thyroid gland

Enlarged, hoarse voice. Barium test followed by x-ray, thyroid nodule needle biopsy, and testing.

Lung

Impaired oxygen uptake and transport by the lungs, persistent bloody coughing, breathing difficulties, fatigue, dizziness, elevated blood calcium levels. Chest imaging such as MRI, x-ray, CT, PET; Lab tests (advanced genomic testing).

Breasts

The lump is present, discharge, sometimes bloody, pain in the breast, nipple curved inward, dimpling, skin redness. Mammogram, MRI, ultrasound, biopsy for testing. Screening starts at age 40 years or earlier for high-risk individuals

Liver

Bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, yellow skin and eyes (jaundice). Ultrasound of the abdomen, MRI, CT, blood testing, Liver biopsy for testing.

Pancreas

May block bile flow (fluid that helps with digestion and is secreted by the liver through a duct that shares the common entry with pancreatic juice) resulting in yellow eyes and yellow skin (jaundice).  Pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, lack of nutrition, sometimes diabetes. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

Genetic testing with tumor markers (CA 19-9), MRI, CT, PET-CT.

Kidneys

Bloody urine, back pain, low blood counts, pain in lower abdomen, weight loss, fever, abdominal swell. CT, Urinalysis, including urine cytology,

x-ray shows calcification (calcium deposit).

Bladder

Burning urination (pee), frequent urination, back pain, pelvic pain, wanting to urinate but nothing comes out. CT scan test, Urinalysis, including urine cytology

Colorectal

Blood in stools, black stools, constipation, the persistent passage of gas, hemorrhoids, anemia, fatigue, weight loss. Colonoscopy (looking at the lining of your large intestine)

MRI, PET, CT. Biopsy for testing

Ovarian

Back pain, pelvic pain, bloating, muscle spasms. Ultrasound, specific serum protein (CA-125) level test.

Uterine lining

Abdominal pain, unusual vaginal bleeding. PAP smear screening, Ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, biopsy for testing.

Cervix

Irregular bleeding, or pain, but very rare; usually, no symptoms. PAP smear screening, CT scan, MRI, Colposcopic ally (light directed, magnified the view of the cervix) directed biopsy for testing.

Vagina

Bleeding, lump, tender, discharge. PAP smear screening to check cells and to perform HPV test.

Prostate

Enlarged, pains in the organ, urine difficulty, interrupted urine flow, painful semen (male reproductive fluid) discharge, lower back stiffness and pain, hip pain. Biopsy for PSA test for screening which starts at age 50 years.  MRI, CT, PET for diagnosis.

Testicles

Fatigue, lower back pain, lump in testicles, swollen scrotum, swollen lymph nodes, weight loss. Ultrasound, blood test with tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chronic gonadotropin (HCG), CT, MRI, PET

Skin (Melanoma)

Skin discoloration, itching, skin lesions, moles with undefined edges which may bleed Self-examination using the Mole guide less, if the skin lesion is suspected, Dermatologist (skin specialist) obtains skin biopsy and test by histochemical techniques. Chest x-ray, MRI, CT, PET, to check if the cancer is spread to the inside of the body.

Bones (Sarcoma)

Blood loss, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, fatigue, hyperglycemia (excessive blood calcium levels), fever, loss of appetite, kidney failure. Bone x-ray, MRI, PET-CT, bone marrow biopsy for testing.

Blood (Leukemia)

Anemia, feeling dizzy, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, feeling weak, shortness of breath. Ultrasound, CT) or MRI directed bone marrow biopsy for cell studies and blood count, flow cytometry to check rate of cancer growth, lymph nodes removal, x-ray, ultrasound, echo-cardiogram

Lymphatic System (Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma)

Neck lymph node swells and may be without pain, abdomen contractions, weakness, shortness of breath, weight loss, fatigue, headache. Blood count, biopsy, biochemical tests: high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) are indications of liver damage resulting from lymphoma; High LDH activity indicates liver invasion. Chest x-ray. MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound.
Note: A lot of other illnesses share some of these symptoms. This is why it is important to do several tests in the evaluation process.

We have worked with partners to put together special packages for cancer screening. Do review  click here