Diagnosis of Dengue

Posted By: admin | Posted on: 28 November, 2016 09:26 am

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Dengue
Symptoms Of Dengue

(Image Credits: shutterstock.com)

 

Prevention  and Diagnosis of Dengue

Along with knowing the symptoms of dengue, it is also essential to be aware of how Dengue can be diagnose. Early detection and testing plays an important role in the impact of Dengue. In many instances, the prompt and timely diagnosis of dengue can save an individual’s life. It is also important to note the precautions to be undertake for prevention of Dengue.

Testing or Diagnosis for Dengue

The diagnosis of dengue can be confirm by laboratory testing. Dengue is difficult to identify by other methods since the symptoms initially resemble other diseases. The tests for diagnosis of dengue are time dependent. All tests may actually show up as negative in the early stages of the infection. Also, in general, a low white blood cell count and a low platelet count act as key indicators for the diagnosis of dengue.

 

What are the tests available?

NS1 Antigen Test:

This test can be use for the determination of dengue on the very first day of dengue fever. The acute phase of the dengue infection occurs within the first 5 days after the onset of symptoms. If the patient seeks diagnosis of dengue during theses period, the blood sample is collect and it is then test for the NS1 Antigen. The detection of this antigen is greater during the febrile phase of the infection. The NS1 Antigen Test is generally carry out during the first four days of infection.

Antibody tests:

Unlike antigens, antibodies usually appear 5 or more days after the beginning of the dengue fever. When the patient seeks diagnosis of dengue at least 5-6 days after the onset of symptoms, the blood sample is test for the antibodies, types IgM and IgG. IgM is produce  in both the primary infection of dengue and subsequent re-infections as well. However, it becomes undetectable about 30-90 days after the primary infection and even earlier in re-infections. The discovery of IgG, on the other hand, can even be made 60 years later, to indicate past infections! Conversely, the detection of IgM on its own in an individual is a diagnosis for dengue whereas the detection of IgG alone and is not a determinant of dengue.

Rapid diagnostic kits v/s ELISA tests:

ELISA takes about 4-6 days to give results
ELISA Test Plate

(Image Credits: shutterstock.com)

 

In the absence of clear guidelines, many hospitals prefer to administer the Rapid Diagnostic Kit (RDK) for the diagnosis of dengue due to the short time these tests take to give the results. However, RDKs have also on occasion provided false positive of dengue. Hence, in 2013, the State Government of Delhi advised all the hospitals to use ELISA tests instead. If the individual is being test within 5 days of the onset of symptoms, antigens should be test using the ELISA test. After 5-7 days, antibodies should be test using ELISA test. However, a drawback is that this test is a lot more expensive compared to the RDK and also less easily available for the diagnosis of dengue. It takes around 4-6 hours to give the results.

Treatment course

There is no specific medication for treating Dengue. What is most important, perhaps, is the diagnosis of dengue. Still, a common course involves making sure one is hydrate, well-rest at all times and consulting a physician. If the symptoms worsen, the physician’s opinion on hospitalization should be sought and action should accordingly be taken.

Why not self-medicate?

Self-medication using medicines such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen should be avoid at all costs. This is because dengue affects the platelets responsible for clotting causing the person to bleed more and Aspirin, Ibuprofen also have similar effects. Both of them together could cause the person to bleed excessively also resulting in the Dengue Shock Syndrome, a potentially fatal condition, which requires hospitalization and treatment on an emergency basis.

Are there any ways to prevent dengue?

There is no vaccine for dengue prevention. Open sources of water should be covered and avoid accumulation of stagnant water
Prevention of Dengue

(Image Credits: shutterstock.com)

Since a vaccine for the prevention of Dengue isn’t available in India and most places around the world yet, environmental conditions are important factors. Open sources of still water in households should be  rid of or if not possible, insecticides should be spray. Additionally, solid waste should be dispose properly and water storage containers should be cover and routinely clean, empty and refill. Finally, every individual must take whatever steps they can to prevent the development of mosquito breeding grounds.